A CRITICAL READING AGAINST CONCEPTUALISATION OF HUMAN AND NON-HUMAN: LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS
Keywords:Fears, Alienation, Hegemony, Nature, Non-Human
Human fears, albeit in different forms, are what “Man” has been trying to avoid as part of his hegemonic motivations over nature. The fears, controlled by humans or controlling them, can operate as both motivation and demotivation, showing how “Man” is strong enough to not be weak, but also weak enough not to be strong. This study problematises humansʼ perceived superiority over nature and non-humans through theoretical and literary readings. It surveys the intersections of literary and philosophical narratives that challenge dominant human-centric viewpoints. By exploring narratives from diverse perspectives, it attempts to understand the underlying agents causing fear, alienation, and otherness embedded in different cultures. Hierarchal power dynamics in the forms of race, class, and gender are considered as “man-made” concepts, distorting human perceptions into dominating non-human and nature. Apparently, fear, alienation, and othering play a detrimental role in how these power dynamics operate. However, at the same time, fear and alienation potentially hint at human vulnerability. The study intends to reclaim nature from its submissive position against the concept of human-nurture, ideologically pertaining to society and culture. In this way, it shows a thorough understanding of human behaviour and motivation in the face of domination and perceived superiority. It concludes that the concepts of fear, alienation, and otherness potentially bear the ways in which human hegemony could be limited if not subverted.
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